The rhetorics of food as an everyday strategy of resistance in slave narratives

Autor

  • Urszula Niewiadomska-Flis Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29107/rr2022.1.3

Słowa kluczowe:

jedzenie, opór, niewolnictwo, relacje niewolników, piosenki juba, broń "słabych/bezsilnych"

Abstrakt

Jedzenie nigdy nie jest jedynie jedzeniem; jest również narzędziem władzy w sensie Foucaultowskim. Jedzenie jawi się bowiem jako retoryczny sposób wyrażania dominacji i manifestowania nieposłuszeństwa. Przedstawione w narracjach niewolników jedzenie to przejaw materialnej i symbolicznej walki, instrument przemocy i sposób wyrażenia oporu. W niniejszym opracowaniu przyjrzę się, w jaki sposób zniewoleni Afroamerykanie wykorzystywali przygotowywanie i konsumpcję żywności, a także dyskurs o jedzeniu, jako retoryczne środki oporu. W tym celu stworzone przez Michela Foucaulta podstawy teoretyczne dla rozważań o władzy i oporze zestawione zostały z retorycznymi studiami Kennetha Burke'a, koncepcją oporu retorycznego Gillian Symon, a także z teoriami codziennego sprzeciwu „słabych” autorstwa Jamesa Scotta i Elizabeth Janeway. Wykorzystując to zaplecze teoretyczne, skupiłam się na analizie roli jedzenia w relacjach niewolników, rozumianego jako retoryczny środek definiowania i kwestionowania tożsamości, ustanawiania i naruszania granic oraz kwestionowania status quo zastanego na plantacjach w południowych stanach USA.

Bibliografia

Primary sources:

Ball, Charles. 1859. Fifty Years In Chains; or, The Life of an American Slave. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2000. http://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/ball/ball.html.

Bibb, Henry. 1849. Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, An American Slave, Written by Himself. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2000. http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/bibb/bibb.html.

Brown, William Wells. 1847. Narrative of William W. Brown, A Fugitive Slave. Written by Himself. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2001. https://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/brown47/brown47.html.

Clarke, Lewis Garrard. 1845. Narrative of the Sufferings of Lewis Clarke, During a Captivity of More than Twenty-Five Years, Among the Algerines of Kentucky, One of the So Called Christian States of North America. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1999. https://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/clarke/clarke.html.

Douglass, Frederick. 1881. Life and Times of Frederick Douglass: His Early Life as a Slave, His Escape from Bondage, and His Complete History to the Present Time. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1999. https://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/douglasslife/douglass.html.

Douglass, Frederick. 1855. My Bondage and My Freedom. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2000. https://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/douglass55/douglass55.html.

Douglass, Frederick. 1845. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1999. http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/douglass/douglass.html.

Equiano, Olaudah (Gustavus Vassa). (1789) 1999. The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African. In I Was Born a Slave: an Anthology of Classic Slave Narratives. Volume 1, 1770-1849, ed. Yuval Taylor. 29-180. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books.

Grimes, William. (1825) 1999. “Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave.” In I Was Born a Slave: an Anthology of Classic Slave Narratives. Volume 1, 1770-1849, ed. Yuval Taylor. 181-234. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books.

Henson, Josiah. 1858. Truth Stranger Than Fiction: Father Henson's Story of His Own Life. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2000. https://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/henson58/henson58.html.

Jacobs, Harriet A. 1861. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2003. http://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/jacobs/jacobs.html.

Jackson, John Andrew. 1862. The Experience of a Slave in South Carolina. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1996. https://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/jackson/jackson.html.

Kemble, Frances Anne. 1863. Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation in 1838-1839. The Project Gutenberg, 2004. https://www.gutenberg.org/fi les/12422/12422-h/12422-h.htm

Lane, Lunsford. 1842. The Narrative of Lunsford Lane, Formerly of Raleigh, N.C. Embracing an Account of His Early Life, the Redemption by Purchase of Himself and Family from Slavery, and His Banishment from the Place of His Birth for the Crime of Wearing a Colored Skin. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1999. https://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/lanelunsford/lane.html.

Northup, Solomon. 1853. Twelve Years A Slave: Narrative of Solomon Northup. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1997. https://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/northup/northup.html.

“Slaves’ Resistance on Southern Plantations: Selections from the WPA Slave Narratives.” http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/maai/enslavement/text7/resistancewpa.pdf National Humanities Center, 2007.

Steward, Austin. 1857. Twenty-Two Years a Slave, and Forty Years a Freeman; Embracing a Correspondence of Several Years. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1997. https://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/steward/steward.html.

Stroyer, Jacob. 1885. My Life in the South. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2001. https://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/stroyer85/stroyer85.html.

Washington, Booker T. 1901. Up From Slavery: An Autobiography. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1997. http://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/washington/washing.html.

Washington, Booker T. 1904. Working With the Hands: Being a Sequel to ‘Up From Slavery’, Covering the Author’s Experiences in Industrial Training in Tuskegee. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company.

Secondary sources:

Adas, Michael. 1992. “From Avoidance to Confrontation: Peasant Protest in Precolonial and Colonial Southeast Asia.” In Colonialism and Culture, ed. Nicholas B. Dirks. 89-126. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Aptheker, Herbert. 1974. American Negro Slave Revolts. New York: Columbia University Press.

Bakhtin, Mikhail. 1968. Rabelais and His World. Trans. Helene Iswolsky. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Blassingame, John. 1979. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.

Brown, Jennifer. 2018. “Remembrance of Freedoms Past: Foodways in Slave Narratives.” The Routledge Companion to Literature and Food, ed. Lorna Piatti-Farnell, and Donna Lee Brien. 160-174. New York: Routledge, 2018.

Burke, Kenneth. 1966. Language as Symbolic Action. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Burke, Kenneth. 1969. A Rhetoric of Motives. Berkeley, University of California Press.

Bush, Barbara. 1990. Slave Women in Caribbean Society 1650-1838. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Camp, Stephanie. 2004. Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Camp, Stephanie. 2002. “The Pleasures of Resistance: Enslaved Women and Body Politics in the Plantation South, 1830-1861.” The Journal of Southern History 68(3): 533-572.

Cerulo, Karen. 1998. Deciphering Violence: The Cognitive Structure of Right and Wrong. New York: Routledge.

Covey, Herbert, and Dwight Eisnach. 2009. What the Slaves Ate: Recollections of African American Foods and Foodways from the Slave Narratives. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.

Eisnach, Dwight, and Herbert C. Covey. 2019. “Slave Gardens in the Antebellum South: The Resolve of a Tormented People.” The Southern Quarterly 57(1): 11-23.

Escott, Paul. 1979. Slavery Remembered: A Record of Twentieth-Century Slave Narratives. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Fanon, Frantz. (1952) 2008. Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Charles Lam Markmann. Pluto Press.

Farrish, Christopher. 2015. “Theft, Food Labor, and Culinary Insurrection in the Virginia Plantation Yard.” In Dethroning the Deceitful Pork Chop: Rethinking African American Foodways from Slavery to Obama, Ed. Jennifer Jensen Wallach. 151-163. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.

Foucault, Michel. 1991. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of a Prison. London, Penguin.

Foucault, Michel. (1978) 1998. The Will to Knowledge: The History of Sexuality. Volume one. Trans. Robert Hurley. London: Penguin.

Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth. 1998. Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women of the Old South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth. 1986. “Strategies and Forms of Resistance: Focus on Slave Women in the United States.” In In Resistance: Studies in African, Caribbean, and Afro-American History, ed. Gary Y. Okihiro. 143-165. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. 2013. “How Many Slaves Landed in the U.S.?” The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross, PBS. https://www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/history/how-many-slaves-landed-in-the-us/

Gaventa, John. 2003. Power after Lukes: An Overview of Theories of Power since Lukes and Their Application to Development. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.

Genovese, Eugene D. 1976. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York: Vintage Books.

Glymph, Thavolia. 2008. Out of the House of Bondage: The Transformation of the Plantation Household. Cambridge University Press.

Hartman, Saidiya. 1997. Scenes of Subjection: Terror, Slavery, and Self-Making in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press.

Harris, Jessica B. 2001. High on the Hog: A Culinary Journey from Africa to America. Kindle edition. Bloomsbury.

Hillard, Kathleen. 2014. Master, Slaves, and Exchange: Power’s Purchase in the Old South. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Irigaray, Luce. (1977) 1985. This Sex Which is Not One. Trans. Catherine Porter with Carolyn Burke. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Janeway, Elizabeth. 1981. Powers of the Weak. New York: Morrow Quill Paperbacks.

Jefferson, Thomas. 1785. Notes on the State of Virginia. Documenting the American South, University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2006. https://docsouth.unc.edu/southlit/jefferson/jefferson.html.

Jones Bessie, and Bess Lomax Hawes. 1972. Step It Down: Games, Plays, Songs & Stories from the Afro-American Heritage. New York: Harper & Row.

Jones, Jacqueline. 1985. Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and the Family from Slavery to the Present. New York: Basic Books.

Jones, Kelly Houston. 2020. “Slave Resistance.” The CALS Encyclopedia of Arkansas https://encyclopediaofarkansas.net/entries/slave-resistance-7653.

Kerkvliet, Benedict J. Tria. 1986. “Everyday Resistance to Injustice in a Philippine Village.” In Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance in South-east Asia, Ed. James C. Scott and Benedict J. Tria Kerkvliet. 107-123. London: Frank Cass.

King, Lovalerie. 2003. “Counter-Discourses on the Racialization of Theft and Ethics in Douglass’s ‘Narrative’ and Jacobs's ‘Incidents’.” MELUS 28(4): 55-82.

Lichtenstein, Alex. 1988. “That Disposition to Theft with which they have Been Branded: Moral Economy, Slave Management, and the Law.” Journal of Social History 21(3): 413-440.

Litwack, Leon F. 1979. Been in the Storm so Long: The Aftermath of Slavery. New York: Vintage Books.

Luck, Chad. 2014. The Body of Property: Antebellum American Fiction and the Phenomenology of Possession. New York: Fordham University Press.

McGranahan, Carole. 2016. “Theorizing Refusal: An Introduction.” Cultural Anthropology 31(3): 319–25.

Niewiadomska-Flis, Urszula. 2019. “Kij i marchewka – pożywienie jako narzędzie kontroli w narracjach niewolników.” [“Carrot and Stick – Food as a Tool of Control in Slave Narratives”] In Przemoc. Tom 8. Wielkie Tematy Literatury Amerykańskiej, ed. Agnieszka Woźniakowka i Sonia Kaputa. 11-27. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.

Roberts, Mark S. 2008. The Mark of the Beast: Animality and Human Oppression. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press.

Scott, James C. 1989. “Everyday Forms of Resistance.” The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies 4.89: 33–62. https://rauli.cbs.dk/index.php/cjas/article/view/1765/1785

Scott, James C. 1985. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven and London: Yale.

Sharpless, Rebecca. 2010. Cooking in Other Women’s Kitchens: Domestic Workers in the South, 1865-1960. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Singleton, Theresa A. 1995. “The Archaeology of Slavery in North America.” Annual Review of Anthropology 24: 119–140.

Stern, Julia A. 2010. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War Epic. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

Symon, Gillian. 2005. “Exploring Resistance from a Rhetorical Perspective.” Organization Studies 26.11: 1641-1663.

Tonkin, Elizabeth. 1992. Narrating Our Pasts: The Social Construction of Oral History. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Tsank, Stephanie. 2021. “‘Midnight Bakings’ Amid Starvation: Food and Aesthetics in the Slave Narrative.” In Cambridge History of the Literature of the U.S. South, ed. Harilaos Stecopoulos. 126-142. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Twitty, Michael. 2011. “Gardens.” In World of the Slave: Encyclopedia of the Material Life of Slaves in the United States, ed. Martha B. Katz-Hyman and Kym S. Rice, 245–50. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood.

Wallach, Jennifer Jensen. 2019. Getting What We Need Ourselves: How Food Has Shaped African American Life. Rowman & Littlefield.

White, Monica. 2018. Freedom Farmer: Agricultural Resistance and the Black Freedom Movement. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Wood, John. 2015. “The Concept of Property and Ownership in the Antebellum American South: Slaves, Slaveholders, Theft, Conflict and the Law.” Interstate: Journal of International Affairs 7.1. Retrieved from http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=1072

Yentsch, Anne. 2008. “Excavating the South’s African American Food History.” The African Diaspora Archeology Network Newsletter 11(2). https://scholarworks.umass.edu/adan/vol11/iss2/2/

Downloads

Opublikowane

2022-04-07 — Updated on 2022-04-07

Versions

Jak cytować

Niewiadomska-Flis, Urszula. 2022. „The Rhetorics of Food As an Everyday Strategy of Resistance in Slave Narratives”. "Res Rhetorica" 9 (1):32-51. https://doi.org/10.29107/rr2022.1.3.