Critical rhetoric and Critical Discourse Analysis in a critical pandemic world


  • Emilija Radibratovic Facylty of Philology, University of Belgrade



Niniejszy artykuł przedstawia możliwości połączenia retoryki krytycznej i krytycznej analizy dyskursu w badaniu dyskursu publicznego dotyczącego jednego z tematów związanych z koronawirusem, a mianowicie komunikacji instytucjonalnej na temat szczepionki Oxford-AstraZeneca. Zastosowanie dwóch komplementarnych ram teoretycznych ujawnia negocjowanie dyskursu oraz naturalizację władzy i ideologii w perswazyjnej praktyce dyskursywnej polegającej na wydawaniu kolejnych sprzecznych komunikatów dotyczących bezpieczeństwa szczepionki.


Adorno, Theodor W. 1991. The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture. London: Routledge.

Al Jazeera and news agencies. 2021. “Which countries have stopped using AstraZeneca’s COVID vaccine?” Al Jazeera, March 15-16.

Althusser Luis. 1971. Lenin and Philosophy, and Other Essays, tran. by B. Brewster. London: NLB.

Batchelor, Tom. 2021. “‘Link’ between AstraZeneca vaccine and blood clots, EMA official says.” Independent, April 6.

BBC News. 2021a. “AstraZeneca vaccine: EU regulator ‘firmly convinced’ benefits outweigh risks.” BBC News, March 16.

BBC News. 2021b. “Lisa Shaw: Presenter's death due to complications of Covid vaccine.” BBC News, August 26.

Burke, Kenneth J. 1966. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkley: University of California Press.

Casert, Raf, and Frank Jordans. 2021. “EU regulator ‘convinced’ AstraZeneca benefit outweighs risk.” AP News, March 16.

Craig, David. 2020. “Pandemic and its metaphors: Sontag revisited in the COVID-19 era.” European Journal of Cultural Studies 23 (6): 1025-1032.

Daniels, Brandon M., and Kendall R. Phillips. 2020. “Between Critical and Rhetoric: McKerrow’s Contribution to Contemporary Critical Practice.” International Journal of Communication 14: 912-925.

Deutsche Welle. 2021. “COVID: Several European countries halt use of AstraZeneca vaccine.” Deutsche Welle, March 11.

Dixon, Peter. 1971. Rhetoric. London: Methuen & Co Ltd.

European Medicines Agency. 2021a. “AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine: EMA finds possible link to very rare cases of unusual blood clots with low blood platelets.” European Medicines Agency, April 7.

European Medicines Agency. 2021b. “COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca: benefits still outweigh the risks despite possible link to rare blood clots with low blood platelets.” European Medicines Agency, March 18.

European Medicines Agency. 2021c. “COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca: PRAC investigating cases of thromboembolic events - vaccine’s benefits currently still outweigh risks – Update.” European Medicines Agency, March 11.

European Medicines Agency. 2021d. “EMA recommends COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca for authorisation in the EU.” European Medicines Agency, January 29.

European Medicines Agency. 2021e. “Vaxzevria (previously COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca).” European Medicines Agency. Accessed October 24, 2021.,Vaxzevria%20on%2025%20March%202021.

Fairclough, Norman. 1989. Language and Power. New York: Longman Inc.

Fairclough, Norman. 1992. Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Fairclough, Norman. 1995. Media Discourse. London: Arnold.

Franklin-Wallis, Oliver. 2021. “An oral history of Oxford/AstraZeneca: ‘Making a vaccine in a year is like landing a human on the moon’”. The Guardian, August 28.

Fuko, Mišel [Foucault, Michel]. 2006. Volјa za znanjem: istorija seksualnosti I. (trans. J. Stakić based on first translation in 1978, red D. Aničić). Loznica: Karpos.

Habermas, Jürgen. 2014. “A normative conception of discourse”. In The Discourse Studies Reader: Main currents in theory and analysis, ed. Johannes Angermuller, Dominique Maingueneau, and Ruth Wodak, 365-368. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Hall, Stuart. 1985. “Signification, Representation, Ideology and Althusser and the Post-Structuralist Debates.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 2: 91-114.

Hariman, Robert. 1986. “Status, Marginality and Rhetorical Theory.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 72: 38-54.

Heller, Jeffrey. 2021. “Israel sees probable link between Pfizer vaccine and myocarditis cases.” Reuters, June 2.

Henley, Jon. 2021a. “AstraZeneca jab: EU regulator ‘firmly convinced’ benefits outweigh risks”. The Guardian, March 16.

Henley, Jon. 2021b. “EU drug agency denies already finding causal link between AstraZeneca vaccine and blood clots.” The Guardian, April 6.

Hughes, Chris. 2021. “Vaccine Dogfight Puts AstraZeneca in a Hard Spot.” Bloomberg, January 28.

King, Chris. 2021. “AstraZeneca Vaccine Changes Its Name.” Euroweekly News, March 30.

Kmm and rc/aw (AFP, Reuters, dpa and AP). 2021. “Coronavirus: EU medical regulator says AstraZeneca COVID vaccine does not cause blood clots.” Deutsche Welle, March 16.

Lucaites, John Luis, Celeste Michelle Condit, and Sally Caudill. 1999. “Introduction.” In Contemporary Rhetorical Theory: A Reader, ed. John Luis Lucaites, Celeste Michelle Condit, and Sally Caudill. New York, London: Guilford Press.

McGee, Michael Calvin. 1982. “A Materialist’s Conception of Rhetoric.” In Exploration in Rhetoric, ed. Raymie E. McKerrow, 23-48. Glenview: Scott, Foresman.

McGee, Michael Calvin. 1984. “Another Philippic: Notes on the Ideological Truth in Criticism.” Central States Speech Journal 35: 43-50.

McGee, Michael Calvin. 1987. “Public Address and Culture Studies.” Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the Central States Speech Association.

McGee, Michael Calvin. 1999. “Text, Context, and the Fragmentation of Contemporary Culture.” In Contemporary Rhetorical Theory: A Reader, ed. John Luis Lucaites, Celeste Michelle Condit, and Sally Caudill, 65-78. New York, London: Guilford Press.

McKerrow, Raymie E. 1999. “Critical Rhetoric: Theory and Praxis.” In Contemporary Rhetorical Theory: A Reader, ed. John Luis Lucaites, Celeste Michelle Condit, and Sally Caudill, 441-463. New York, London: Guilford Press.

McKerrow, Raymie E., and Art Herbig. 2020. “Critical Rhetoric Special Section: Introduction.” International Journal of Communication 14: 926-936.

Miller, Sara G., and Reuters. 2021. “Johnson & Johnson vaccine linked to 28 cases of blood clots, CDC reports.” NBC News, May 12.

Montiel, Cristina Jayme, Joshua Uyheng, and Erwine Dela Paz. 2021. “The Language of Pandemic Leaderships: Mapping Political Rhetoric During the COVID-19 Outbreak.” Political Psychology.

Osisanwo, Ayo. 2021. “’This Virus is a Common Threat to All Humans’: Discourse Representation of COVID-19 in Selected Newspaper Editorials.” Athens Journal of Mass Media and Communications 7: 1-20.

Reuters. 2020. “False claim: the first volunteer in a UK coronavirus vaccine trial has died.” Reuters, April 26.

Sicha, Choire. 2021. “The Empathy Wars.” New York Magazine: Intelligencer. August 16.

Talmazan, Yuliya. 2021. “Oxford-AstraZeneca Covid-19 vaccine is 'safe and effective,' European Medicines Agency rules.” NBC News, March 18.

Therborn, Göran. 1980. The Ideology of Power and the Power of Ideology. London: NLB.

Thurlow, Crispin. 2015. “Multimodality, Materiality and Everyday Textualities: The Sensuous Stuffof Status.” In Handbook of Intermediality, ed. Gabriele Rippl, 619-636.

Van Dijk, Teun A. 1988. News as Discourse. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Van Dijk, Teun A. 2009. “Discourse, cognition, society. Critical Discourse Studies: A Sociocognitive Approach.” In Methods for Critical Discourse Analysis, ed. Ruth Wodak and Michael Meyer, 389-399. London: Sage.

Van Dijk, Teun A. 2015. “Critical Discourse Analysis.” In The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, ed. Deborah Tannen, Heidi E. Hamilton, and Deborah Schiffrin. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Van Leeuwen, Theo. 2005. Introducing Social Semiotics. London and New York: Routledge.

Van Leeuwen, Theo, and Ruth Wodak. 1999. “Legitimizing immigration control: A Discourse historical analysis.” Discourse Studies 1(1): 83-118. doi:10.1177/1461445699001001005.

Van Overstraeten, Benoit, and Sudip Kar-gupta. 2021. “France opts for mRNA vaccines for second coronavirus shot.” Reuters, April 9.

Wmr and jf/msh (AP, AFP, dpa and Reuters) 2021. “AstraZeneca: EMA says blood clots ‘very rare’ side effect.” Deutsche Welle, April 7.

Wodak, Ruth. 2007. “Pragmatics and Critical Discourse Analysis: A Cross-Disciplinary Inquiry.” Pragmaics & Cognition 15 (1): 203-225.

Wodak, Ruth. 2013. “Critical Discourse Analysis: Challenges and Perspectives, Editor’s Introduction.” In Critical Discourse Analysis, ed. Ruth Wodak, xix-xliii. Los Angeles/London/New Delhi/Singapore/Washington D.C.: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Wodak, Ruth. 2021. “Crisis communication and crisis management during COVID-19.” Global Discourse 00 (00): 1-20. doi: 10.1332/204378921X16100431230102

Wong, Jade, and Emily Claypool. 2020. “Narratives, masks and COVID-19: A qualitative reflection.”Qualitative Social Work 20 (1-2): 206-213. doi: 10.1177/1473325020973330.

World Health Organization. 2021a. “COVID-19 vaccines.” World Health Organization. Accessed September 21, 2021.

World Health Organization. 2021b. “WHO statement on AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine safety signals.” World Health Organization, March 17.



Jak cytować

Radibratovic, Emilija. 2021. „Critical Rhetoric and Critical Discourse Analysis in a Critical Pandemic World”. "Res Rhetorica" 8 (4):119-34.