Confronting the Jewish Rejection of Jewish Particularism: Chaim Zhitlowsky’s Anti-Assimilationist Intervention in the American Yiddish Press

Autor

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29107/rr2020.2.2

Abstrakt

W artykule poddano analizie sposób wykorzystania przez Chaima Żytłowskiego (1865–1943) „wewnętrznej” żydowskiej przestrzeni prasy jidysz do krytykowania amerykańskiego tygla i przedstawienia jego alternatywnego modelu „internacjonalistycznego”. Żytłowski próbował podnieść świadomość Żydów-imigrantów, analizując przyczyny, dla których nie przyjęli tego, co określił jako „postępowy nacjonalizm”. Zastosowanie przez Żytłowskiego wschodnioeuropejskich pomysłów autonomicznych w kontekście amerykańskim oferuje prowokującą krytykę kosmopolitycznych tendencji w polityce ery progresywizmu, w kręgach żydowskich i nie tylko.

Bibliografia

Sources by Chaim Zhitlowsky: Accessed via Papers of Chaim Zhitlowsky, RG 208, Archives of the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. “The Future of Races in America.” Undated manuscript. Folder 2022 (reel 30, frame 446).

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. “The Melting Pot.” Undated manuscript. Folder 2024 (reel 30, frame 614).

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1921a. “Der yidishistisher ‘kulturizm’ in Amerike.” Di tsayt, 4 Feb. (?). Reel 32A, frame 333.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1921b. “‘Amerikanizm’ un ‘englishizm.’” Di tsayt, 13 Feb. (?). Reel 32A, frame 220.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1921c. “Undzer politishe aktsyon do in land.” Di tsayt, 18 Feb. (?). Reel 32A, frame 66.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1921d (?). “Her Gibons un der antisemitizm.” Di tsayt (?). Reel 32A, frame 37.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1921e (?). “A gezegn-vort Hern Gibonsn.” Di tsayt (?). Reel 32A, frame 26.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1929. “Undzer yugnt far undzer folk: Di frage vegn undzer asimilirter yugnt.” 3 Apr (?). Reel 32A, frame 83.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1933. “‘Dos rekht oyf asimilatsye.’” 5 Jul. (?). Reel 32A, frames 89, 98.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1934. “Undzer yugnt un undzer folk: Natsyonaler bavustzayn un anti-natsyonale shtimungen tsvishn der yidisher yugnt.” Der tog, 20 Mar. (?). Reel 32A, frames 91, 100.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1938a. “Asimilatorishkeyt un yidishizm: Dos problem fun oyslebn zikh in der eygener kultur un zikh araynlebn in a fremder.” Der tog, 4 Jul. (?). Reel 32A, frame 361.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1906a (?). “Tsvey forlezungen vegn der tsukunft fun di felker in Amerike.” Reprinted in Gezamlte shriftn, vol. 2. Warsaw: Brzoza, 1932.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. “Der melting-pot,” 139-237.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. “Di fareynikte felker fun di fareynikte shtatn,” 239-286.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1906b (?). “Tsvey forlezungen vegn yid un mentsh.” Reprinted in Gezamlte shriftn, vol. 2. (Warsaw: Brzoza, 1932), 103-186.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1914a. Di asimilatsye: Vos zi zogt tsu un vos zi git. Vienna: Naye velt.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1914b. “Der natsyonal-progresiver dor.” 3 Dec. (?). Reprinted in Gezamlte shriftn, vol. 8 (In shvere tsaytn), (New York: Dr. Kh. Zhitlovski-Farlag-Gezelshaft, 1919), 96-101.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1915a. “Vos iz progres?” Der tog (?), 24 Sep. Reprinted in Gezamlte shriftn, vol. 8 (In shvere tsaytn), (New York: Dr. Kh. Zhitlovski-Farlag-Gezelshaft, 1919), 141-146.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1915b. “Di yesoydes fun dem mentshlekhn progress.” Der tog (?), 27 Sep. Reprinted in Gezamlte shriftn, vol. 8 (In shvere tsaytn), (New York: Dr. Kh. Zhitlovski-Farlag-Gezelshaft, 1919), 146-153.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1921f. “Der ernst fun der zakh.” Di tsayt, 7 May.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1926a. “Ayndrukn fun Amerike: Notitsn fun mayn rayze ibern land.” Der tog, 4 Apr.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1926b. “Di englishizirung fun di yidishe masn.” Der tog, 25 Apr.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1926c. “Alerley asimilirte yidn in Amerike: Fun mayne rayze-ayndrukn ibern land.” Der tog, 13 Jun.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1926d. “Di amerikaner ‘yahudim’: Fun mayne rayze ayndrukn ibern land.” Der tog, 20 Jun.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1926e. “Tsu dem lataynishn alef-beys: Vi azoy azye eyropeizirt zikh,” Der tog, 22 Jul.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1926f. “Der yidisher alef-beys: Tsu der frage fun shraybn yidish mit lataynishe bukhshtabn.” Der tog, 25 Sep.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1935. “Der ershter fertl-yorhundert fun undzere shuln.” In Shul-almanakh: Di yidishe moderne shul oyf der velt, H. Novak, ed., (Philadelphia: Central Committee of the Workmen’s Circle Schools), 5-14.

Zhitlowsky, Chaim. 1938b. “Der kiem-haleoym: Obyektive un subyektive badingungen far der ekzistents un frayer antviklung fun a folk.” Yidishe kultur 1, no. 1 (Nov.), 3-5.

Charney, Samuel (Niger, Sh.). 1925. “D"r Khayem Zhitlovski: Tsu zayn zekhtsik-yorikn yubiley.” Literarishe bleter 2, no. 83 (4 Dec.), 277-279.

Dresner, Camillo. 1975. Haim Zhitlovski: Teoretikan “hale’umiut hagalutit” bezikatah lesotsializm. Ph.D. dissertation, Hebrew University, Jerusalem.

Dubnov, Shimen. 1929. “Zhitlovskis oytonomizm.” In Zhitlovski-zamlbukh (Warsaw: Brzoza), 190-195.

Elsberg, Sh. 1929. “D"r Zhitlovskis tetikeyt in Amerike.” In Zhitlovski-zamlbukh (Warsaw: Brzoza), 172-189.

Frankel, Jonathan. 1981. “Chaim Zhitlovsky: Russian Populist and Jewish Socialist, 1887–1907.” In idem, Prophecy and Politics: Socialism, Nationalism, and the Russian Jews, 1862-1917 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 258-287.

Goldsmith, Emanuel. 1987. “Chaim Zhitlowsky.” In idem, Modern Yiddish Culture: The Story of the Yiddish Language Movement (New York, Shapolsky), 161-181.

Hoffman, Matthew. 2005. “From ‘Pintele Yid’ to ‘Racenjude’: Chaim Zhitlovsky and Racial Conceptions of Jewishness.” Jewish History 19, no. 1, 65-78.

Kharlash, Yitskhok. 1960. “Zhitlovski, Khayem.” In Leksikon fun der nayer yidisher literatur, vol. 3 (New York: Alveltlekher yidisher kultur-kongres), col. 685-708.

Michels, Tony. 2009. “The Politics of Yidishe Kultur: Chaim Zhitlovsky and the Challenge of Jewish Nationalism.” In idem, A Fire in Their Hearts: Yiddish Socialists in New York (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), 126-178.

Novak, Hersh. 1948. “Dr. Khayem Zhitlovski un zayn batayt far der yidisher shul-bavegung.” In Shulpinkes: Lekoved dem tsvantsikstn yoyvl 1926-1946 (Chicago: Sholem-Aleichem Folk Institute), 151-169.

Pludermakher, Gershon. 1935. “Dr. Khayem Zhitlovski: Der foter fun der yidisher shul-bavegung in Amerike.” Literarishe bleter 12, no. 21 (24 May), 340.

Price, Joshua. 2010. “Redefining Americanization: Zhitlovski and Kallen on American Pluralism.” Unpublished draft.

Rabinovitch, Simon. 2014. “Chaim Zhitlowsky, the Austro-Marxists, and Jewish Autonomism.” In idem, Jewish Rights, National Rites: Nationalism and Autonomy in Late Imperial and Revolutionary Russia (Stanford: Stanford University Press), 54-60.

Rozenboym, M. M. 1929. “Zhitlovski-biblyografye.” In Zhitlovski-zamlbukh (Warsaw: Brzoza), 432-479.

Schweigmann-Greve, Kay. 2012. Chaim Zhitlowsky: Philosoph, Sozialrevolutionär und Theoretiker einer sä kularen nationaljü dischen Identität. Hannover: Wehrhahn Verlag.

Schweigmann-Greve, Kay. 2007. “Jüdische Nationalität aus verweigerter Assimilation: Biographische Parallelen bei Moses Hess und Chaim Zhitlowsky und ihre ideologische Verarbeitung.” Trumah 17, 91-116.

Weinberg, David. 1996. “Haim Zhitlowski: Language, Political Radicalism, and Modern Jewish Identity.” In idem, Between Tradition and Modernity: Haim Zhitlowski, Simon Dubnow, Ahad Ha-Am, and the Shaping of Modern Jewish Identity (New York: Holmes & Meier), 83-144.

Brodkin, Karen. 1998. How Jews Became White Folks and What That Says about Race in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Goldberg, N. 1941. “Di yidishe prese in di fareynikte shtatn, 1900-1940.” YIVO-bleter 18 (Nov.-Dec.), 129-157.

Goldstein, Eric. 2006. The Price of Whiteness: Jews, Race, and American Identity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Janowsky, Oscar. 1933. The Jews and Minority Rights, 1898-1919. New York:

Columbia University Press.

Pianko, Noam. 2010. Zionism and the Roads Not Taken: Rawidowicz, Kaplan, Kohn. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Rubin, Barry. 1995. Assimilation and Its Discontents. New York: Times Books.

Shmeruk, Chone. 1997. “Mayufes: A Window on Polish-Jewish Relations.” Polin 10, 273-286.

Singerman, Robert. 1984. “The American Jewish Press, 1823–1983: A Bibliographic Survey of Research and Studies.” American Jewish History 73, no. 4 (Jun.), 422-444.

Soltes, Mordecai. 1925. The Yiddish Press: An Americanizing Agency. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.

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2020-07-06

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Turner, Ri J. 2020. „Confronting the Jewish Rejection of Jewish Particularism: Chaim Zhitlowsky’s Anti-Assimilationist Intervention in the American Yiddish Press”. "Res Rhetorica" 7 (2). https://doi.org/10.29107/rr2020.2.2.